Transition as Democ To survive, he resorted to an admixture of force, that is, the stick or the threat and the actual use of force against the political opposition; and the carrot or a reward system in relation to social forces, groups and individuals that supported the regime. The fledgling regime also sought, by that singular act, to besmirch the Abiola mandate. It would later prosecute a veritable propaganda war with a view to ethnicizing or denationalizing June Worse, it would mount a two-pronged assault on the political opposition, as well as on civil society groups and ethnic nationalities, for whom June 12 became a formidable platform to fight against long-standing socio-political and economic inequities and injustice in the Nigerian polity. In other words, which social forces threw up an Abacha, as well as a galaxy of political opportunists, whose composition and complexity almost made nonsense of politics as a public vocation, or politics as a contestation of ideas, values and principles in the public realm. First, the structural configuration of the Nigerian state furnished a propitious, if people-unfriendly, context for an Abacha.
History: Evolution of Nigeria constitution 1914 to 1999
Nigeria, 99th member of the United Nations, is an internationally recognized sovereign nation made up of 36 states and a Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Nigeria is a creation of the Constitution. Nigeria grew into an internationally recognised independent nation, in , after a period of colonialism under the British government which spanned about a century beginning with the formal annexation of Lagos in While each successive pre-independence constitutional instrument was enacted through an order-in-council of the British monarch, their post-independence counterparts were enacted in two ways: an Act of parliament Constitution and military decree and The emergent entity was administered under the authority of the British monarch through her appointed agent: a Governor-General.
The Constitution created a Legislative Council of the Colony which was however restricted to making laws for the Colony of Lagos alone, whilst the Governor General made laws for the rest of the country.
The Abacha military regime that ruled Nigeria from 17 November to 8 prevails’.2 Having literally shot down the historic presidential election results of 12 that is, post travails of the country’s fourth democratic experiment. of the Nigerian state furnished a propitious, if people-unfriendly, context for an Abacha.
Since it gained independence from Britain in , however, it has been plagued by political instability and economic problems. In , after implementing a wide range of governmental reforms, Obasanjo stepped down from office and restored civilian rule. In doing so, he became the only Nigerian military leader to voluntarily hand power to a democratically-elected government. Following two decades of corrupt political leadership, Obasanjo presented himself as a candidate for president, and was elected in March of As president, Obasanjo faced some daunting problems.
The economy, already damaged by high-level corruption, is dependent on oil for In , Obasanjo enlisted in the Nigerian army. He was commissioned in , and served in the Congo now Zaire the following year. In Otta, Ogun State, ; elected president of Nigeria, Addresses: Home — Abeokuta, Nigeria. In his two decades in the military, Obasanjo advanced steadily through the ranks.
From to , he served in the 5th Battalion in Kaduna and the Cameroons.
South Africa profile – Timeline
McBride declines, asserting that they do not have a legal case and that Indigenous people, in general, are satisfied with BC policies. In response, the Interior Tribes issues a Memorial and Declaration, reiterating their July declaration. Due to government approval of the McKenna-McBride recommendations, the Allied Tribes declares that they are entitled to a hearing at the Privy Council and demands the funding and sanction to do so.
The Committee considers the position of the Allied Tribes for two weeks, then declares that they had not proven any rights to the land based on Aboriginal or other title.
Focus Group Discussion with Research Participants in Nigeria. The introductory chapter captures the historical background of Ogoni problems The current Constitution is not radically different from the some of these treaties remains contested and unresolved to date. Jan Amalgamation of the.
With the merger of Exxon and Mobil in , the newly formed Exxon Mobil Corporation brought together a shared history that dates back over years to their origins as part of the Standard Oil family of companies. By , the Trust had amassed companies responsible for all aspects of the petroleum industry — exploration, production, refining, transportation and marketing — creating a vertically integrated organization. Congress’s passage of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of , however, which aimed to ensure fair competition in interstate commerce and to eliminate monopolies, eventually led to the dissolution of the Trust in Not to be outdone, the company rebounded by forming the Standard Oil Interests, consisting of about 20 holding companies.
In , taking advantage of a New Jersey law allowing a single corporation to own stock in other companies, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey became the holding company for the Standard Oil Interests. A year earlier, however, the Ohio attorney general had begun legal proceedings to order all Ohio companies affiliated with Standard Oil to separate and begin operating independently. Other states soon followed, with charges that Standard Oil continued to violate anti-trust laws.
In May , after years of legal proceedings, the United States Supreme Court declared Standard Oil Company of New Jersey an “unreasonable” monopoly and ordered it to dissolve, resulting in 34 distinct and separate companies. The former would become Exxon; the latter Mobil. Throughout the 20th century, both companies continued to grow and forge individual identities.
Discuss The Historical Background Of Nigerian Constitution Dating From 1914 To 1999
Nigeria is a creation of the Constitution. Nigeria grew into an internationally recognised independent nation, in , after a period of colonialism under the British government which spanned about a century beginning with the formal annexation of Lagos in While each successive pre-independence constitutional instrument was enacted through an order-in-council of the British monarch, their post-independence counterparts were enacted in two ways: an Act of parliament Constitution and military decree and
It also informs my choice of the topic Nigeria – To Date– A Chequered Journey So Far. Nigeria has had, at various points in its history, constitutions which A cursory examination of the Constitution especially its Chapter II on It is against this background we should further examine in some.
Corruption is notoriously persistent in Nigeria notwithstanding the panoply of laws deployed over the years against it. This article argues that the factors constraining the effectiveness of laws in the fight against corruption are to be found not in the laws, but in the larger societal matrix of resilient social norms and institutions, which constitute the environment of corruption in the country. The environment thus constituted is either conducive to, or largely tolerant of, corruption.
The article then suggests that the anti-corruption effort, to be successful, must engage broadly with the environment by instigating social change. This article will examine the role of social norms and the law in the anti-corruption struggle of Nigeria in recent times. Nigerians often conclude that, given their abundance of natural endowments, the massive scale of poverty among the bulk of their population cannot be explained but by the ravages of corruption.
They also accept that combating corruption is bound to be a daunting, perhaps insuperable, challenge given its entrenchment. The following questions are central to this inquiry: what is the environment of corruption in Nigeria? What counts as corruption in the value acceptances of Nigerians? Why is corruption so resilient and persistent in Nigeria? Why have laws been rather ineffective to combat corruption in Nigeria? Is there a dissonance between laws and social norms?
NIGERIA – 1914 TO DATE: The chequered journey so far
The current economic problem in our nation is often lamented and cursed as unendurable, as if it is peculiar to the nation alone. Similarly, the fiscal measures introduced by the government are looked upon as hindrances or impediments, which a few may consider as irrelevant and unnecessary impositions. Yet, to look back at our growing up problems as if they are burdens, which we must cast off immediately, or run away from, is to be superficial and incapable of understanding ourselves, an offshoot of our character.
The Nigerian economy, whether advancing or otherwise, is the weight that we must bear in our growth towards maturity, and in coming into full being as adults and as a nation. A mother does not complain of the weight of the child she carries on her back. The child is part of the process — the route towards her self-fulfillment.
There are two sections that cover the period of constitutional development in Nigeria by the British imperial administrators and Nigeria was amalgamated in , when South and greater participation by Nigerians in the discussion of their.
Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Those who fail to pay are frequently threatened with arrest and physical harm. Far too often these threats are carried out. In the shadows, high-level police officials embezzle staggering sums of public funds meant to cover basic police operations. Those charged with police oversight, discipline, and reform have for years failed to take effective action, thereby reinforcing impunity for police officers of all ranks who regularly perpetrate crimes against the citizens they are mandated to protect.
The Nigeria Police Force, established in , has a long history of engaging in unprofessional, corrupt, and criminal conduct. Many Nigerian police officers conduct themselves in an exemplary manner, working in difficult and often dangerous conditions—some policemen and women were shot and killed in the line of duty in —but for many Nigerians the police force has utterly failed to fulfill its mandate of providing public security. Indeed, 80 years after its birth, members of the force are viewed more as predators than protectors, and the Nigeria Police Force has become a symbol in Nigeria of unfettered corruption, mismanagement, and abuse.
First, the most direct effect of police corruption on ordinary citizens stems from the myriad human rights abuses committed by police officers in the process of extorting money.
CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
Researching Ghanaian Law. Victor Essien holds LL. Hons , LL. Ghana , LL. NYU degrees.
While the Nigerian Constitution requires each house of the National I. Background The history of the Nigerian legislature dates back to the Lagos Legislative continued to evolve and by the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria was the presidential system of government was reinstituted in (when Nigeria.
General Louis Botha formed a government as prime minister on May 31, Leander Jameson won 39 seats in the House of Assembly. General Botha formed a government as prime minister. The parliament convened on November 4, Prime Minister Botha formed a government as prime minister on December 14, Crisis Phase June 14, September 14, : The parliament approved the Immigration Act on June 14, , which restricted the immigration and movement of Indians within the country. Indians led by Mohandas Gandhi protested against the discrimination.
Prime Minister Botha proclaimed martial law on January 14, after miners went on strike near Johannesburg.
Constitution of Nigeria
In considering the origin of the present educational pattern in Nigeria certain Northern protectorate in and the emergence of Nigeria as a country by Sir From to date the National Policy on Education (NPE) has been reviewed several also reported that the ordinance provided for the constitution of a General.
As Africa’s most populous country, Nigeria, with an estimated population of million and over ethnic groups, deals with a range of migration issues, from massive internal and regional migration to brain drain and a large, well-educated diaspora in the West mainly the United States and the United Kingdom that it sees as key to future development. Thousands of Nigerians seek refuge and asylum each year, and some also migrate illegally, transiting through North Africa and then crossing the Mediterranean to Europe.
Poverty drives much of this movement: more than 70 percent of Nigerians live below the national poverty line. Also, millions have been internally displaced due to religious and ethnic conflicts — particularly in cities across the north — that have persisted despite the establishment of a democratic government in that followed several years of military rule. At the same time, Nigeria is home to a large number of foreigners, including those attracted by the oil-export boom from the s and displaced by political conflicts and civil wars in West Africa.
Nigeria faces a number of complex challenges related to causes of migration. According to a World Bank report, these include translating the benefits of reforms into welfare improvements for its citizens, improving the domestic business environment, extending reform policies to states and local governments, focusing on non-oil growth, increasing and maintaining infrastructure investments, strengthening domestic institutions, tackling unrest in the Niger Delta, and increasing the quality of social-sector spending.
This profile covers Nigeria’s migration history, internal migration and internally displaced people, refugee and asylum flows into and out of the country, movement to Europe, Nigeria’s immigrant population and migration policies, regional migration issues, and trafficking.